1. Resistance evaporation plating
2. Electronic gun evaporation plating
3. Secondary sputtering
4. Secondary magnetron sputtering
5. Three-stage magnetron sputtering
6. Medium frequency double pulse magnetron sputtering
7. Cathode arc
8. Hollow cathode
9. PECVD plasma chemical vapor deposition
1. Resistance evaporation plating: under vacuum conditions, the electrocuted material is vaporized in the form of electric heating or electron gun heating, and deposited on the plated object is called evaporation.
2. Electronic gun evaporation plating: under vacuum conditions, the accelerated electron bombardment coating material is heated and evaporated, and a film is formed. This is also a type of evaporative plating. The characteristics are: the electron beam emitted by the electron gun has a very high energy density, the heating temperature can reach 3000-6000 °C, can evaporate poorly soluble metals or compounds, and is currently widely used in optical coatings.
3. Secondary sputtering: under vacuum conditions, the object (object) to be plated material (object) has a high negative voltage, and the chamber body has a positive voltage to form a loop. The secondary discharge will be sputtered down by the plated object and attached to the plated object to form a secondary sputtering.
4. Secondary magnetron sputtering: On the basis of secondary sputtering, add a magnetic field to the cathode. The magnetic field forms an orthogonal electromagnetic field with the secondary electric field. During the discharge process, the electrons roll on the surface of the target to enhance the plasma density and increase the sputtering rate. Therefore, the sputtering rate of magnetron sputtering is much higher than that of secondary sputtering.
5. Three-stage magnetron sputtering: It is based on magnetron sputtering to form a tertiary sputtering with another pair of electrodes. Tertiary sputtering has a higher ionization rate than magnetron sputtering, and at the same time improves the adhesion to the film layer and the coating quality.
6, medium frequency double pulse magnetron sputtering: is on the basis of magnetron sputtering DC power supply to medium frequency double pulse power supply, at the same time 1 power supply with 1 pair of magnetron targets, the two targets form a loop, this method sputtering is called medium frequency double pulse magnetron sputtering coating, it has many superior properties compared with magnetron sputtering, especially in the coating reaction film, oxide film, etc. are not easy to poison; The target can work stably for a long time. Now magnetron sputtering is more selective, the method is medium frequency double pulse magnetron sputtering. Decorative coatings, lamps, tools and the automotive industry are widely used.
7. Cathode arc: Cathode arc (multi-arc) is currently widely used. The working principle is that under vacuum conditions, arc discharge is generated through the cathode, and the plating is evaporated + sputtered onto the surface of the workpiece (substrate), which has a high ionization rate and is called a kind of ion plating. Now it is widely used in the market for multi-arc targets, generally ∅ diameter ∅ 100. The new type has ∅160, and rectangular, columnar cathode arc and so on are widely used.
8. Hollow cathode: under vacuum conditions, the hollow cathode plasma electron beam is used as the evaporation source, directed in the crucible, and the coating material is put into the crucible. The material is evaporated and plated on the object to be plated, and there are more charged particles in this coating process. Therefore, it is mostly used for plating tools, molds, props, etc.
9. Plasma chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
Plasma is generated by an additional electric field under vacuum conditions, at which time reaction gases, liquids, etc. are introduced. The process of ionization in a vacuum chamber and attachment to the surface of the object to be plated. At present, PECVD is becoming more and more widely used, and it is used to replace CVD. Because PECVD can achieve a better coating without CVD such a high temperature, it is more and more liked by the majority of users.